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Bupropion HCl

Bupropion is an oral antidepressant drug of the aminoketone class. It is not a tricyclic antidepressant and is unrelated to other known antidepressants. Bupropion has been well tolerated in patients experiencing orthostatic hypotension with tricyclic antidepressant drugs, however, it shows a greater potential for causing seizures than other antidepressants.1 Bupropion is also indicated for use as an aide to smoking cessation, and is used off-label for addiction to smokeless tobacco. The drug has been shown to help people with COPD quit smoking when combined with behavior modification. Bupropion is also used off-label for multiple neurological/psychological uses, including ADHD 2 and neuropathic pain 3. Bupropion hydrochloride was originally approved by the FDA in December 1985 but was removed from marketing for several years due to concern over drug-induced seizures. It was reintroduced in July 1989 as an antidepressant (i.e., Wellbutrin), and later in a sustained-release formulation (i.e., Wellbutrin SR). Another sustained-release oral dosage form, Zyban, was approved for the management of smoking cessation in May 1997. Zyban received an additional indication for use in combination with nicotine transdermal systems (NTS) for treating the symptoms of smoking cessation in 1999. A controlled-release formulation (Wellbutrin XL) was approved in August 2003 as a once-daily formulation for major depression in adults.456 In June 2006, Wellbutrin XL was FDA-approved for prevention of major depressive episodes in patients with a history of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Wellbutrin XL is the first prescription product approved for patients with a history of SAD.7 In April 2008, a once-daily formulation of bupropion hydrobromide (Aplenzin) was approved by the FDA for depression, and in August 2012 Aplenzin was approved for the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes in patients with SAD. Aplenzin differs from all previously marketed formulations which are the hydrochloride salt of bupropion.


Phentermine HCl

Phentermine is an oral sympathomimetic amine used as an adjunct for short-term (e.g., 8—12 weeks) treatment of exogenous obesity. The pharmacologic effects of phentermine are similar to amphetamines. Phentermine resin complex was approved by the FDA in 1959, but is no longer marketed in the US. Phentermine hydrochloride was FDA approved in 1973. In the mid-90s, there was renewed interest in phentermine in combination with another anorectic, fenfluramine, for the treatment of obesity and substance abuse, however, little scientific data support this practice. On July 8, 1997, the FDA issued a 'Dear Health Care Professional' letter warning physicians about the development of valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension in women receiving the combination of fenfluramine and phentermine; fenfluramine was subsequently withdrawn from the US market in fall of 1997. Use of phentermine with other anorectic agents for obesity has not been evaluated and is not recommended. In May 2011, the FDA approved a phentermine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablet (Suprenza) for the treatment of exogenous obesity.8



Topiramate is an oral antiepileptic drug (AED) used for partial-onset, generalized primary tonic-clonic seizures, and as an adjunct therapy in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It is derived from the naturally occurring monosaccharide D-fructose and is structurally different from other AEDs. Unlike other AEDs, topiramate appears to block the spread of seizures rather than raise the seizure threshold. Topiramate possesses more than one mechanism of action, which may explain why it can be effective in patients with various seizures that are refractory to other agents. Topiramate continues to be studied as both add-on therapy and monotherapy in various refractory epilepsies in children and adults, including infantile spasms associated with West syndrome. It is also used for migraine prophylaxis in adult and pediatric patients. There is some evidence of a role for topiramate treatment 'off-label' for eating disorders such as binge-eating disorder, for tics due to Tourette's syndrome or other chronic tic disorders, or for substance abuse disorders such as alcohol dependence.91011121314151617


Naltrexone HCl

Naltrexone is an oral opiate receptor antagonist. It is derived from thebaine and is very similar in structure to oxymorphone. Like parenteral naloxone, naltrexone is a pure antagonist (i.e., agonist actions are not apparent), but naltrexone has better oral bioavailability and a much longer duration of action than naloxone. Clinically, naltrexone is used to help maintain an opiate-free state in patients who are known opiate abusers. Naltrexone is of greatest benefit in patients who take the drug as part of a comprehensive occupational rehabilitative program or other compliance-enhancing program. Unlike methadone or LAAM, naltrexone does not reinforce medication compliance and will not prevent withdrawal. Naltrexone has been used as part of rapid and ultrarapid detoxification techniques. These techniques are designed to precipitate withdrawal by administering opiate antagonists. These approaches are thought to minimize the risk of relapse and allow quick initiation of naltrexone maintenance and psychosocial supports. Ultrarapid detoxification is performed under general anesthesia or heavy sedation. While numerous studies have been performed examining the role of these detoxification techniques, a standardized procedure including appropriate medications and dose, safety, and effectiveness have not been determined in relation to standard detoxification techniques.18 Naltrexone supports abstinence, prevents relapse, and decreases alcohol consumption in patients treated for alcoholism. Naltrexone is not beneficial in all alcoholic patients and may only provide a small improvement in outcome when added to conventional therapy. The FDA approved naltrexone in 1984 for the adjuvant treatment of patients dependent on opiate agonists. FDA approval of naltrexone for the treatment of alcoholism was granted January 1995. The FDA approved Vivitrol, a once-monthly intramuscular naltrexone formulation used to help control cravings for alcohol in April 2006, and then in October 2010, the FDA approved Vivitrol for the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence after opioid detoxification.



Methylcobalamin, or vitamin B12, is a B-vitamin. It is found in a variety of foods such as fish, shellfish, meats, and dairy products. Although methylcobalamin and vitamin B12 are terms used interchangeably, vitamin B12 is also available as hydroxocobalamin, a less commonly prescribed drug product (see Hydroxocobalamin monograph), and methylcobalamin. Methylcobalamin is used to treat pernicious anemia and vitamin B12 deficiency, as well as to determine vitamin B12 absorption in the Schilling test. Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin found in the foods such as meat, eggs, and dairy products. Deficiency in healthy individuals is rare; the elderly, strict vegetarians (i.e., vegan), and patients with malabsorption problems are more likely to become deficient. If vitamin B12 deficiency is not treated with a vitamin B12 supplement, then anemia, intestinal problems, and irreversible nerve damage may occur.

The most chemically complex of all the vitamins, methylcobalamin is a water-soluble, organometallic compound with a trivalent cobalt ion bound inside a corrin ring which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Methylcobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals; the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of methylcobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate methylcobalamin from the soil, making them a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues.

Bella Capsules

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